literary essay · questions · Teachers College · writing workshop

The Question Formulation Technique for Deepening Thought

Throughout the year, our district provides ongoing professional development from the Reading and Writing Project at Teachers College of Columbia University (TCRWP). Staff developers visit our district and do demonstration lessons, provide coaching, and lead study groups around reading and writing workshops and content area literacy instruction. They always share innovative tools and ideas, so when Staff Developer Heather Burns suggested demonstrating a Question Formulation Technique (QFT) within a reading class, I was intrigued. She knew teachers were working on book club discussions and thought the QFT could be a great resource to bolster conversations. We’ve written the QFT into some of our social studies units, and I’ve also used it within information writing units. I hadn’t thought about it as a way to deepen reading comprehension and book discussions.  

Since Heather’s presentation, I have duplicated the work in a fifth-grade literary essay unit. Early in the unit, I shared the following chart with the students.

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Ask as many questions as you can. Do not stop to discuss, judge, or answer any of the questions. Write down every question exactly as it was said. Change every statement into a question.

It is important for them not only to hear the ground rules of generating questions before they get going, but also to have a visual reminder. We have even made this chart into individual-sized versions to help students internalize the concept that they are to just write down the questions as they are asked without stopping to judge, discuss, or answer any of them.

Once we presented and reviewed the QFT protocol, we presented students with a statement about the setting, challenging them to have their questions focus on the role of the setting at the beginning stages of a historical fiction reading unit we were doing.

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We were not only building background knowledge around specific historical time periods, but also teaching students to approach this genre with more of an awareness and concern about the time and place. During this lesson, we used the picture book, Coming on Home Soon by Jacqueline Woodson. This story is set in a rural town during World War II.  Ada Ruth is an African American girl whose mother temporarily leaves her in order to work in Chicago, filling in for what were typically men’s jobs.

Picking a focus for generating questions is a critical step in the QFT process. Arriving at a strong QFocus involves choosing a statement, picture, short movie clip, or other source that will spark enough curiosity that students are excited to ask and generate questions but not so broad that students struggle to get started. Before deciding on a focus, I recommend trying it out yourself. If it’s hard for you to think of questions about it, you can bet that students will struggle as well. The goal is to create authentic wonder.

Even with the protocol chart in place, the rules were difficult for students to follow. We divided the class into five groups of four or five students. We noticed a significant variation in how many questions groups could come up with–one group filled a paper and then some, while another group struggled to think of six questions. All of the groups needed many reminders to write the questions down without discussing or judging them. However, once the groups internalized this important concept, the production of questions really increased.

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We taught this class about open-ended and closed-ended questions earlier in the year, but we decided to review this concept as a whole group activity. For the sake of clarity, we defined closed-ended questions as ones in which one word or just a few words would answer them. For example, “where did Ada Ruth live?” would be a closed-ended question.

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C:closed-ended questions  O:Open-ended questions    Tallies represent the number of groups with the same question.

We asked groups to select their most important questions–the ones which would inspire them to say the most about–and we collected those on one master chart. Using those questions, we categorized the questions, coding them with a C and an O for open and closed,  reviewing the types of questions, and explicitly teaching students how to change closed-ended questions into open-ended questions, and vice-versa. When groups had similar questions, we made tallies to indicate others had the same ones. Once we completed this process, we had students choose which question they wanted to explore in their reader’s notebooks.

The work that students did in their notebooks after this experience went far beyond the surface level plot summaries we sometimes see. Every student was engaged and invested in the work they were doing as they explored possible explanations for their questions. Many of the students were concerned about the role of the father, and they related it to the setting because they theorized he may be missing because of the war or the economic pressures of the times.  I’ve shared some of the notebook samples. As you can see in the first sample, the student moves into prediction and theorizing and away from just plot summary.


In the second student sample, the student develops more analysis of the setting and the stresses on the characters and their relationships. This sort of work again pushes students beyond summary and plot, moving into the more sophisticated realm of interpretation.

Perhaps one of the most exciting results of this lesson is how is has evolved in subsequent days. We did this first QFT as a whole class activity, and all of the students asked questions about the same picture book. However, the second QFT challenged book clubs to engage in this work with their own specific text. Because they understood the process, their questions had the potential to lead to deeper thinking during the development phase as opposed to during later steps in the process. One student even explicitly explained how he was working on making sure that any question he asked would be one that could inspire a lengthy explanation. In this way, he demonstrated how he was internalizing the important skill of asking questions, but he was also pushing himself to ask questions that required interpretation and analysis.

In so much of the work I do with students, my goal is to inspire them to think as opposed to answer. The QFT is a powerful instructional practice that inspires a curious habit of mind, as it invites students to share the responsibility of asking questions of themselves and one another.

11 thoughts on “The Question Formulation Technique for Deepening Thought

  1. I love the QFT, and I love when people discuss how they use it in classes.

    I teach college, and I can’t tell if having the students work on questions individually or in groups is better. I feel like they’re so loath to be embarrassed that they struggle more with questions in groups. But then when I have them write questions on their own, some of the struggle. So you know. As you said, it’s amazing the variation in the number and type of questions that students can come up with.


  2. Melanie,
    You had me hooked from the beginning, and then sealed the deal with this sentence from the end of your post: “In so much of the work I do with students, my goal is to inspire them to think as opposed to answer. ” I think it is an important shift to get kids thinking rather than just answering.
    A quick question: when in the reading process do you do this questioning work? Before reading, during reading, after reading? And if you do some of it during reading, how often did/would you stop and jot? Also, do you continue generating questions, or once you’ve chosen one, do you follow that one through all the way to the end?
    I appreciate any time you have to answer my questions. I suspect it’s something one might hear about at the summer institutes at TCRWP this year, but unfortunately I won’t be attending this summer. 😦
    Thanks so much for a great post!


    1. For us, we used the QFT after we read the book once. Honestly, it would depend on what you had your Q-focus be. You could do it on an interesting cover of a picture book if you were teaching into orienting. We were beginning the lit essay unit, so it helped them develop some deep thinking about the setting–many of them ended up having setting become an important section of their essay. When one particular student was stuck on what to write, I had her do an “individual” QFT with the focus on the complexity of the character. Then, she used her highest priority questions to become her paragraphs. Does this make sense?


      1. Yes, that makes total sense. Thanks so much for your time in replying, and thanks again for another great post.
        Have you yet read Vicki Vinton’s newest book, Dynamic Teaching for Deeper Thinking? Your post and this strategy reminded me of it- all about getting kids to think deeply.


  3. I’ve used this for science, but never thought of how to use it for writing. Great connections and I’m excited to try it.


  4. Thank you so much I love the idea and am excited to learn more about it. Thank you for the direction and I will keep you in the loop as I learn


  5. I love the idea of this and was wondering how or if it is something that we can do with kindergarten.It seems so right for Kinders, as they are often filled with never ending questions- although I realize that this would be a challenge keeping their q’s focused. Does the facilitator write the down all the questions. Are the children aware of what is a closed question and open or is that decided as a group. And, finally are there more workshops or vid on this technique. I love this and thanks for the post and any further information you can provide.


    1. You could do it with kindergartners, and yes, the facilitator writes down the questions–I’ve done it with early second-graders, and that’s the youngest I’ve done. As a group, they were able to understand the concept of open and ended questions, and you’d probably find the same to be true for younger children. Some would get it and some would go along with it. The Right Question Institute has amazing resources on its website, and I’m sure they would love to hear about your experiences using the QFT with kinders–I would too!


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